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cp(1)									 cp(1)

       cp - copy files and directory subtrees

       extarg] file1 new_file

       extarg] file1 [file2 ...] dest_directory

       extarg] directory1 [directory2 ...] dest_directory

       extarg] file1|directory1	 [file2|directory2 ...]	 dest_directory


	      ·	 file1 to new or existing new_file,
	      ·	 file1 to existing dest_directory,
	      ·	 file1, file2, ...  to existing dest_directory,
	      ·	 directory  subtree directory1, to new or existing dest_direc‐
		 tory.	or
	      ·	 multiple directory subtrees directory1,  directory2, ...   to
		 new or existing dest_directory.

       fails  if file1 and new_file are the same (be cautious when using shell
       metacharacters).	 When destination is a directory, one  or  more	 files
       are  copied  into that directory.  If two or more files are copied, the
       destination must be a directory.	 When copying a single file to	a  new
       file, if new_file exists, its contents are destroyed.

       If the access permissions of the destination dest_directory or existing
       destination file new_file forbid writing, aborts and produces an	 error
       message "cannot create file".

       To copy one or more directory subtrees to another directory, the option
       is required.  The option is ignored if used  when  copying  a  file  to
       another file or files to a directory.

       If  new_file is a link to an existing file with other links, overwrites
       the existing file and retains all links.	  If  copying  a  file	to  an
       existing	 file,	does  not change existing file access permission bits,
       owner, or group.

       When copying files to a directory or  to	 a  new	 file  that  does  not
       already exist, creates a new file with the same file permission bits as
       file1, modified by the file creation mask of the user if the option was
       not  specified,	and  then  bitwise inclusively ORed with S_IRWXU.  The
       owner and group of the new file or files are those of  the  user.   The
       last  modification  time of new_file (and last access time, if new_file
       did not exist) and the last access time of the source file1 are set  to
       the time the copy was made.

       (interactive copy) Causes
	       to  write  a  prompt  to standard error and wait for a response
	       before copying a file that would overwrite  an  existing	 file.
	       If  the	response  from	the standard input is affirmative, the
	       file is copied if permissions allow the copy.

       (force copy) Forces existing destination pathnames to be removed before
	       without prompting for confirmation.  This option has the effect
	       of destroying and replacing any existing file  whose  name  and
	       directory  location conflicts with the name and location of the
	       new file created by the copy operation.

	       When the flag is set and if the destination file exists and the
	       user  has  write	 permission  on the destination file, then the
	       destination file is not removed.

       (preserve permissions) Causes
	       to preserve in the copy	as  many  of  the  modification	 time,
	       access  time,  file  mode,  user ID, and group ID as allowed by

       (recursive subtree copy) Causes
	       to  copy	 the  subtree  rooted  at  each	 source	 directory  to
	       dest_directory.	 If dest_directory exists, it must be a direc‐
	       tory, in which case creates a directory	within	dest_directory
	       with  the  same	name as file1 and copies the subtree rooted at
	       file1 to dest_directory/file1.  An error occurs if  dest_direc‐
	       tory/file1  already  exists.  If dest_directory does not exist,
	       creates	it  and	 copies	 the  subtree  rooted  at   file1   to
	       dest_directory.	Note that cannot merge subtrees.

	       Usually	normal	files  and  directories are copied.  Character
	       special devices, block special devices, network special	files,
	       named  pipes,  symbolic	links,	and sockets are copied, if the
	       user has access to the file; otherwise, a  warning  is  printed
	       stating	that  the  file	 cannot	 be  created,  and the file is

	       dest_directory should not reside within directory1, nor	should
	       directory1  have	 a  cyclic  directory structure, since in both
	       cases attempts to copy an infinite amount of data.

	       Under the UNIX Standard environment  (see  standards(5)),  will
	       exit  with error if multiple sources are being copied to a non-
	       existing directory.

       (recursive subtree copy) The
	       option is identical to the option.

	       With the and options, in addition to regular files and directo‐
	       ries,  also  copies FIFOs, character and block device files and
	       symbolic links.	Only superusers can copy  device  files.   All
	       other  users  get  an  error.  Symbolic links are copied so the
	       target points to the same location that the source did.

	       Warning:	 While copying a directory tree that has  device  spe‐
	       cial  files,  use  the option; otherwise, an infinite amount of
	       data is read from the device special file and is duplicated  as
	       a  special  file	 in  the destination directory occupying large
	       file system space.

       Causes  to traverse the symbolic link specified as an operand and  copy
	       it to the destination.

       Causes  to  traverse  the  symbolic link specified as an operand or any
	       symbolic links encountered during traversal of a	 file  hierar‐
	       chy, and copy it to the destination.

       Causes  to  copy the symbolic link specified as an operand and any sym‐
	       bolic links encountered during traversal of a  file  hierarchy.
	       This option will not follow any symbolic links.

       Specifies the handling of any extent attributes of the file[s] to be
	       copied.	extarg takes one of the following values.

		    Issues  a  warning	message if extent attributes cannot be
			      but copies the file anyway.
		    Does not copy the extent attributes.
		    Fails to copy the file if the extent attribute can not  be

	       Extent  attributes  can	not  be	 copied if the files are being
	       copied  to  a  file  system  which  does	 not  support	extent
	       attributes  or  if  that file system has a different block size
	       than the original.  If is not specified, the default value  for
	       extarg is

       Specifies "safe" mode.  This option minimizes the impact of
	       on  the	performance  of	 the system by opening the target file
	       using the flag.	This is recommended when the total size of the
	       copy  (not  of  a  single file) is a significant portion of the
	       size of system buffer cache.  Usage of  this  option  increases
	       copy time.

       Causes  not to copy ACL attributes of the source to destination.

       Specifying more than one of the mutually-exclusive options and will not
       be considered an error.	The last option specified will	determine  the
       behavior of the utility.

   Access Control Lists (ACLs)
       If  new_file  is a new file, or if a new file is created in dest_direc‐
       tory, it inherits the access control list of the original file1, file2,
       etc.,  altered  to  reflect any difference in ownership between the two
       files (see acl(5) and aclv(5)).	In JFS file systems, new files created
       by  do  not  inherit  their  parent directory's default ACL entries (if
       any), but instead retain the ACLs of  the  files	 being	copied.	  When
       copying	files  from  a	JFS  file system to an HFS file system or vice
       versa, optional ACL entries are lost.

       If is used with the option, ACL entries will not be copied to the  des‐
       tination.   If  the  destination	 file  does  not already exits and the
       option is not specified, then the file permission bits of the  destina‐
       tion will be set according to the file creation mask of the user.

       For information about the UNIX standard environment, see standards(5).

   Environment Variables
       determines the interpretation of text as single and/or multi-byte char‐

       and determine the local language equivalent of (for yes/no queries).

       determines the language in which messages are displayed.

       If is not specified in the environment or is set to the	empty  string,
       the  value  of is used as a default for each unspecified or empty vari‐
       able.  If is not specified or is set to the empty string, a default  of
       "C"  (see lang(5)) is used instead of If any internationalization vari‐
       able contains an invalid setting, behaves as if	all  internationaliza‐
       tion variables are set to "C".  See environ(5).

   International Code Set Support
       Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported.

       The following command moves the directory sourcedir and its contents to
       a new location (targetdir) in the file system.  Since creates  the  new
       directory,  the	destination  directory	targetdir  should  not already

       The option copies the subtree (files and subdirectories)	 in  directory
       sourcedir to directory targetdir.  The double ampersand causes a condi‐
       tional action.  If the operation on the left side of the is successful,
       the  right  side	 is  executed (and removes the old directory).	If the
       operation on the left of the is not successful, the  old	 directory  is
       not removed.

       This example is equivalent to:

       To copy all files and directory subtrees in the current directory to an
       existing targetdir, use:

       To copy all files and directory subtrees	 in  sourcedir	to  targetdir,

       Note that directory pathnames can precede both sourcedir and targetdir.

       To create a zero-length file, use any of the following:

       Access  control lists of networked files are summarized (as returned in
       by but not copied to the new file.  When using or on such files,	 a  is
       not  printed  after  the mode value when asking for permission to over‐
       write a file.

       was developed by AT&T, the University of California, Berkeley, and HP.

       cpio(1), ln(1), mv(1), rm(1), link(1M), lstat(2), readlink(2), stat(2),
       symlink(2), symlink(4), acl(5), aclv(5), standards(5).


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