hier(5)hier(5)NAMEhier - file system hierarchy
The HP-UX file system is a hierarchical tree organized for administra‐
tive convenience. Within the file-system tree structure, distinct
areas are provided for files that are private to one machine, files
that can be shared by machines, and home directories.
There are two types of files that are shared: those that can be shared
by multiple machines of a common architecture, and those that can be
shared by all machines. This organization allows sharable files to be
stored on one machine (the server), but accessed by many machines
The following diagram illustrates the file system layout. Note that
there are many directories that are not is this diagram, but are dis‐
Diagram of Directory Layout
| |---- bin
|---- etc | |---- bin
| |---- ccs ------|
|---- usr ------| |---- lib
/ ----| |---- lib
|---- sbin |
| |---- sbin
|---- var |
| |---- lbin
|---- home |
| |---- include |---- dict
|---- opt | |
| |---- share -----|---- lib
|---- (export) |
The following listing discusses a representative HP-UX directory hier‐
archy. Some HP-UX applications may add additional directories, which
are not shown.
/ Root directory.
/dev Special files (block and character device
files); see mknod(1M).
/etc Host-specific configuration and administration
/etc/opt Directory for application-specific configura‐
tion files. (Configuration information for
/etc/rc.config.d Startup configuration files.
/export Default root of exported file systems. Server
/home Default root for user directories.
/lost+found Storage directory for connecting detached
files; for use by fsck(1M).
/mnt Mounting point for local file systems.
/net Mounting point for remote file systems.
/opt Root of subtree for optional application pack‐
/sbin Essential system commands. Essential commands
are defined as executables that are needed to
boot the system and mount the file systems. A
full complement of utilities is available only
after is mounted.
/sbin/init.d Startup and shutdown scripts.
/sbin/rc0.d Link files to scripts in for entering or leav‐
ing run level 0.
/sbin/rc1.d Link files to scripts in for entering or leav‐
ing run level 1.
/sbin/rc2.d Link files to scripts in for entering or leav‐
ing run level 2.
/sbin/rc3.d Link files to scripts in for entering or leav‐
ing run level 3.
/stand Standalone binaries and kernel configuration
/tmp System-generated temporary files; generally
cleared during the boot operation.
/usr Mount point for sharable user and system
administration commands, libraries and docu‐
/usr/bin Primary location for common utilities and user
/usr/ccs C compilation system. Tools and libraries
used to generate C programs.
/usr/ccs/bin Development binaries; includes cc, make,
/usr/ccs/lib Development libraries.
/usr/ccs/lbin Development backends.
/usr/conf Kernel configuration files.
/usr/contrib Directory for user-contributed (unsupported,
internal) commands, files, etc. Files in this
directory come from outside the local site or
organization (for example, from users groups
or HP service engineers).
/usr/contrib/bin User-contributed commands.
/usr/contrib/include User-contributed include files.
/usr/contrib/lib User-contributed libraries.
/usr/contrib/man User-contributed man pages.
/usr/include Included header files, for C and other pro‐
grams. Some subdirectories are listed below.
/usr/include/machine Machine-specific C include files.
/usr/include/nfs C include files for Network File System (NFS).
/usr/include/sys Kernel related C-language header files.
/usr/lbin Directory for backend executables to other
commands. A backend executable is an exe‐
cutable that is generally not invoked directly
by the user.
/usr/lib Program libraries, object code and architec‐
/usr/lib/nls Directory for Native Language Support.
/usr/local Directory for site-local commands, files, etc.
Files under this directory come from inside
the local site or organization. See /usr/con‐
trib for non-local unsupported commands and
/usr/local/bin Site-local commands.
/usr/local/lib Site-local libraries.
/usr/local/man Site-local man pages.
/usr/newconfig Default operating system configuration data
files. This directory is a directory hierar‐
chy mirroring New versions of customizable
configuration files and databases are shipped
here so as not to overwrite current versions.
Files in this directory are copied to regular
locations for newly installed systems. System
administrators may wish to keep them for later
/usr/old Files and programs that are being phased out
or are obsolete.
/usr/sbin System administration commands.
/usr/share Architecture-independent sharable files.
/usr/share/dict Dictionaries for spell and ispell.
/usr/share/lib Miscellaneous sharable libraries.
/usr/share/man Online documentation.
/var Root of subtree for "varying" files. These
are files that are created at runtime and can
grow to an arbitrary size. Some examples
include log, temporary, transient, and spool
/var/adm System administrative files, such as log files
and accounting files. Some of the subdirecto‐
ries are listed below.
/var/adm/crash For saving kernel crash dumps.
/var/adm/cron Directory for cron(1M) queuing.
/var/adm/sw Default location for software distribution
/var/adm/syslog Log files generated by syslog. See syslog(3C)
/var/mail Incoming mail.
/var/news Local-system news articles for news(1).
/var/opt Root of subtree for varying files associated
with optional software packages.
/var/preserve Place where ex(1) and vi(1) save lost edit
sessions until recovered.
/var/run Files created when daemons are running. For
example, the process ID (PID) file for sys‐
logd, syslog.pid, is put here.
/var/spool Miscellaneous directories for printer spool‐
ing, mail delivery, cron(1M), etc.
/var/spool/cron cron(1M) and at(1) spooling files.
/var/spool/lp Printer spool files.
/var/spool/mqueue Outgoing mail and log files containing mes‐
sages from the mail system.
/var/spool/uucp UUCP spool directory.
/var/tmp Application-generated temporary files. This
directory generally is not cleared between
/var/uucp UUCP administration files.
Some directories include commands or files not supported on all HP-UX
SEE ALSOfind(1), grep(1), ls(1), whereis(1).