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mailaddr(7)							   mailaddr(7)

       mailaddr - mail addressing description

       Mail addresses are based on the ARPANET protocol listed in the SEE ALSO
       section of this reference page.	In addition, the DECnet address format
       can be used, if DECnet is installed on your system.

       To send mail to DECnet users, use the following address format:
       In  this	 case,	nodename is the name of the DECnet system, or host, on
       which the target user resides.

       Addresses based on the ARPANET protocol use the following general  for‐
       A domain is a hierarchical dot-separated list of subdomains.  For exam‐
       ple, the following address is interpreted from right to left:
       In the previous example, the message  is	 directed  to  the  ARPA  name
       tables  (which do not correspond exactly to the physical ARPANET).  The
       message then proceeds to	 the  Berkeley	gateway,  after	 which	it  is
       directed	 to the local host When the message reaches it is delivered to
       the user

       Unlike some other forms of addressing, this does not imply any routing.
       Thus,  an address that is specified as an ARPA address can travel by an
       alternate route if that route is more  convenient  or  efficient.   For
       example,	 from Berkeley, the message could go directly to over the Eth‐
       ernet, rather than using the Berkeley ARPANET gateway.

       Abbreviations.  In some instances, you do not have to  type  an	entire
       domain name.  Generally, any information that follows the first dot may
       be omitted if the sending and receiving	domains	 are  the  same.   For
       example,	 a  user  on  calder.Berkeley.ARPA  can	 eliminate the .Berke‐
       ley.ARPA when sending to eric@monet, because the sending and  receiving
       hosts are the same.

       Other  abbreviations  are  permitted  when conflicts do not exist.  For
       example, Berkeley ARPANET hosts can  be	accessed  without  adding  the
       .ARPA, if their names do not conflict with a local host name.

       Compatible  Addresses.  To provide compatibility with the previous mail
       system, some old address formats are converted to the new  format.   In
       particular,  host::user is converted to user@host providing consistency
       with the command.

       The syntax host!user is converted to user@host.UUCP.  Before being sent
       on,  user@host.UUCP  is	normally converted back to the host!user form.
       This conversion is done for compatibility with older UUCP hosts.

       The current implementation cannot automatically route messages  through
       the  UUCP  network.  Thus, you must explicitly tell the mail system all
       the hosts your messages must be sent through to	arrive	at  its	 final

       Case  Distinctions.   Domain  names (that is, anything following the at
       sign (@)) can be a combination of upper- and lowercase characters  with
       the  exception  of  UUCP	 hostnames.  Most hosts accept both upper- and
       lowercase in user names, with the exception of MULTICS sites.

       Differences with ARPA Protocols.	 Although the UNIX  addressing	scheme
       is based on the ARPA mail addressing protocols, there are some signifi‐
       cant differences.

       Currently, the only top level domain  defined  by  ARPA	is  the	 .ARPA
       domain  itself.	This is further restricted to having only one level of
       host specifier.	That is, the addresses that ARPA accepts  must	be  in
       the format user@host.ARPA (where `host' is one word).  For example, the
       following address is not legal under the ARPA protocols:
       Thus, the previous address would be converted to a different format  on
       output to the ARPANET.  For example:
       Route-addrs.   In some instances, a message must be routed through sev‐
       eral hosts to reach its final destination.   Usually,  this  action  is
       invisible  to the sender; however, it is sometimes desirable to route a
       message manually.  Addresses that are moved manually are called	route-
       addrs.  The syntax is as follows:
       The  previous  example  directs	the  message  to  hosta, to hostb, and
       finally to hostc.  This route is used regardless of  a  more  efficient
       path to hostc.

       Route-addrs occur frequently on return addresses, because they are gen‐
       erally augmented by the software at  each  host.	  It  is  possible  to
       ignore  all  but	 the  user@host	 part  of the address to determine the
       actual sender.

       Postmaster.  Every site must have a user or user	 alias	designated  as
       postmaster to which problems with the mail system can be addressed.

       CSNET.  To send messages to CSNET, use the following syntax:

See Also
       mail(1), sendmail(8)
       Crocker, D. H., Standard for the Format of Arpa Internet Text Messages,


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