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introduction(9)						       introduction(9)

       introduction - HP-UX operating system and HP-UX Reference

       HP-UX  is  the  Hewlett-Packard Company's implementation of a operating
       system that is compatible with various industry standards.  It is based
       on  the	System V Release 4 operating system (SVR4) and includes impor‐
       tant features from the Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution (4BSD).

       Improvements include enhanced capabilities and other  features,	devel‐
       oped  by HP to make HP-UX a very powerful, useful, and reliable operat‐
       ing system, capable of supporting a wide range of applications  ranging
       from  simple  text processing to sophisticated engineering graphics and
       design.	It can readily	be  used  to  control  instruments  and	 other
       peripheral  devices.   Real-time capabilities further expand the flexi‐
       bility of HP-UX as a  powerful  tool  for  solving  tough  problems  in
       design,	manufacturing,	business, and other areas where responsiveness
       and performance are important.

       Extensive international language support enables HP-UX to interact with
       users  in  any  of  dozens of human languages.  HP-UX interfaces easily
       with local area networks and  resource-sharing  facilities.   By	 using
       industry-standard  protocols,  HP-UX provides flexible interaction with
       other computers and  operating  systems.	  Optional  software  products
       extend HP-UX capabilities into a broad range of specialized needs.

       The  is not a learning tool for beginners.  It is primarily a reference
       tool that is most useful for experienced users  of  UNIX	 or  UNIX-like
       systems.	  If you are not already familiar with UNIX or HP-UX, refer to
       the series of Beginner's Guides, tutorial manuals, and  other  learning
       documents  supplied  with  your system or available separately.	System
       implementation and maintenance details are explained in the

       This introduction and the section intro manpages	 describe  the	"core"
       manpages	 that  are delivered with HP-UX.  Other manpages may be deliv‐
       ered separately with optional HP-UX and third-party  software  and  may
       reside in the same directories as the core manpages, or in other direc‐

       The contents of the and its on-line counterpart are a number  of	 inde‐
       pendent	entries	 called These are also called manual entries or refer‐
       ence pages.

       For convenient reference, the manpages are divided into eight  special‐
       ized  sections.	 The  printed  manual also has a table of contents for
       each volume and a composite index.

       Each manpage consists of one or more printed pages,  with  the  manpage
       name  and  section  number  printed in the upper corners.  Manpages are
       arranged alphabetically within each section of  the  reference,	except
       for  the	 intro	page  at  the beginning of each section.  Manpages are
       referred to by name and section number, in the form pagename(section).

       The manpages are available on-line through the command if the  manpages
       are  present  on	 the system.  Refer to the man(1) manpage in Section 1
       for more information.

       Each page in the printed manual has two page numbers,  printed  at  the
       bottom  of the page.  The center page number starts over with page 1 at
       the beginning of each new manpage; it is placed between two  dashes  in
       normal typeface.	 The number printed at the outside corner on each page
       is the sequence number of the page within the  volume.	Users  usually
       locate  manpages	 by  the alphabetic headings at the top of the page as
       when reading a dictionary.

       Some manpages describe two or  more  commands  or  routines.   In  such
       cases,  the  manpage is usually named for the first command or function
       that appears in the NAME section.  Occasionally, a manpage name appears
       as a group descriptor in the NAME section.  In such instances, the name
       describes the commands or functions in more general terms.   For	 exam‐
       ple, the acct(1M) manpage with group descriptor describes the and other
       commands, while the string(3C) manpage with group descriptor  describes
       many character string functions.

       The contains the following sections:

       Volume Table of Contents (Printed Volumes)

	      A	 complete  listing of all manpages in the order they appear in
	      each section, as well as alphabetically intermixed lists of  all
	      command, function, and feature names that are different from the
	      manpage where they appear.

       Section 1: User Commands

	      Programs that are usually invoked directly by users or from com‐
	      mand language procedures (scripts).

       Section 1M: System Administration Commands

	      Commands used for system installation and maintenance, including
	      boot processes, crash recovery, system  integrity	 testing,  and
	      other  needs.   Most  commands in this section require the supe‐
	      ruser privilege.

       Section 2: System Calls

	      Entries into the HP-UX kernel, including the  C-language	inter‐
	      face.  These topics are primarily of interest to programmers.

       Section 3: Library Functions

	      Available	 subroutines  that  reside (in binary form) in various
	      system libraries.	 These topics are  primarily  of  interest  to

       Section 4: File Formats

	      The  structure  of various types of files, such as header files,
	      primarily of interest to administrators  and  programmers.   For
	      example,	the  link  editor  output  file format is described in
	      a.out(4).	 Files that are used only by a single command (such as
	      intermediate  files  used	 by assemblers) are not described.  C-
	      language declarations corresponding to the formats in Section  4
	      can be found in the directories and

       Section 5: Miscellaneous Topics

	      A	 variety  of  information,  such  as descriptions of character
	      sets, macro packages, and kernel tunables.

       Section 6 (Unused)

	      This section was traditionally used for games.  None are shipped
	      with HP-UX.

       Section 7: Device Special Files

	      The  characteristics  of device special files (DSF) that provide
	      the link between HP-UX and system I/O devices.   The  names  for
	      each  topic  usually refer to the type of I/O device rather than
	      to the names of individual special files.

       Section 8: System Administration Commands

	      Some UNIX and Linux vendors put system  administration  commands
	      here.  Some third party vendors install commands in this section
	      in HP-UX.

       Section 9: General Information

	      General introductions (such as this) and	a  glossary  of	 terms
	      used in the HP-UX environment.

	      This section is also used by the Driver Development Kit to store
	      its function and structure manpages, using the  section  numbers
	      9E, 9F, and 9S.

       Composite Index (Printed Manual)

	      An alphabetical listing of keywords and topics based on the NAME
	      section near the beginning of each  manpage  as  well  as	 other
	      information,  cross-referenced  to  manpage  names and sections.
	      The index also contains references to built-in features  in  the
	      various command interpreters ("shells").

       All  manpages follow an established section heading format, but not all
       section headings are included in each manpage.	A  few	manpages  have
       self-explanatory specialized headings.

       NAME   Gives  the  names	 of  the  commands, functions, or features and
	      briefly states the purpose.

	      Summarizes the syntax of the command or program entity.	A  few
	      conventions are used:

	      characters  indicate  literal  characters that should be entered
	      exactly as they appear.  These characters appear in bold in  the
	      online manpages.

	      Italic  strings  represent  variable  elements  that  should  be
	      replaced with appropriate values.

	      Roman square  brackets  ([])  indicate  that  the	 contents  are

	      Roman  braces  ({})  indicate  a	required element, usually in a

	      Ellipses (...) indicate that the previous element and  its  pre‐
	      ceding whitespace (if any) can be repeated.

	      An  argument  beginning with a dash a plus sign or an equal sign
	      is often defined as a command option, even if it	appears	 in  a
	      position	where  a  file	name  could  appear.  Therefore, it is
	      unwise to have files names that begin with or

	      Optional subsections can include the following:
	      Parameters For functions, a description of the parameters in the
	      preceding syntax.

	      Structure Members
		     For  structures,  a description of the structure elements
		     in the preceding syntax.

		     Information about special software or  hardware  require‐

	      Discusses the function and behavior of each entry.

	      Optional subsections can include the following:
	      Options For commands, a description of the switch arguments.

		     For  commands,  a	description of the nonswitch arguments
		     and keywords.

	      Access Control Lists

	      Multithread Usage

	      Security Restrictions
		     Information on restrictions and  privileges  required  to
		     use the item.

	      Information  on what external factors, such as environment vari‐
	      ables, may affect system behavior.

	      Optional subsections can include the following:
	      Environment Variables The effect of language-related  and	 other
	      environment variables on system behavior,

	      International Code Set Support
		     Whether  there is support for single- and multibyte char‐

	      Information under this heading is applicable  only  if  you  are
	      using the network feature described there.

	      Optional subsections can include the following:
	      NFS Information on the network file system.

	      Describes the values returned by function calls or in the return
	      code by commands.

	      For commands, the diagnostic information that may	 be  produced.
	      Self-explanatory messages are not listed.

	      Optional subsections can include the following:


       ERRORS For  functions, the function error values (set in and their cor‐
	      responding error conditions.

	      Examples of typical usage.

	      Potential problems and deficiencies.

	      Variations in HP-UX operation that are related  to  the  use  of
	      specific	hardware,  software,  or  combinations of hardware and

       AUTHOR Indicates the principal developer of the software documented  by
	      the  manpage.  Unless noted otherwise, the source of an entry is
	      System V.

       FILES  The file names that are used or affected by the program or  com‐

       SEE ALSO
	      Provides references to related manpages and other documentation.

	      For  each	 command or subroutine entry point addressed by one or
	      more of the following industry standards, the standard  specifi‐
	      cations to which that HP-UX component conforms.

	      The various standards are:

	      AES	     OSF Application Environment Specification

	      ANSI C	     ANSI X3.159-1989

	      FIPS 151-1     Federal  Information  Processing  Standard	 151-1
			     (National Institute of Standards and Technology)

	      FIPS 151-2     Federal  Information  Processing  Standard	 151-2
			     (National Institute of Standards and Technology)

	      POSIX.1	     IEEE Standard 1003.1-1988 (IEEE Computer Society)
			     (Portable Operating System Interface for Computer

	      POSIX.2	     IEEE Standard 1003.2-1990 (IEEE Computer Society)
			     (Portable Operating System Interface for Computer

	      POSIX.4	     IEEE  Standard  1003.1b-1993 (IEEE Computer Soci‐
			     ety) (Portable  Operating	System	Interface  for
			     Computer Environments)

	      SVID2	     System V Interface Definition Issue 2

	      SVID3	     System V Interface Definition Issue 3

	      XPG2	     X/Open Portability Guide Issue 2 (X/Open, Ltd.)

	      XPG3	     X/Open Portability Guide Issue 3 (X/Open, Ltd.)

	      XPG4	     X/Open Portability Guide Issue 4 (X/Open, Ltd.)

	      XPG4.2	     X/Open   Portability  Guide  Issue	 4  Version  2
			     (X/Open, Ltd.)

       This is a very brief overview of how to use the HP-UX  system:  how  to
       log in and log out, how to communicate through your machine, and how to
       run a program.

       HP-UX uses control characters to perform	 certain  functions.   Control
       characters are generally shown in the form such as for Control-D.  Hold
       down the (key while you press the character key.

       The key names and refer to the same key.

   Logging In
       To log in you must have a valid user name and password,	which  can  be
       obtained from your system administrator.

       When  a	connection  has	 been established, the system displays on your
       terminal.  Type your user name and press the key.  Enter your  password
       (it is not echoed by the system) and press

       A  list	of  copyright  notices	and a message-of-the-day may greet you
       before the first prompt.

       It is important that you type your login name with  lowercase  letters,
       if  possible.   If  you type uppercase letters, HP-UX assumes that your
       terminal cannot	generate  lowercase  letters,  and  treats  subsequent
       uppercase input as lowercase.

       When  you log in successfully, the system starts your login shell.  The
       default is the POSIX shell, The POSIX shell (and its predecessors,  the
       Korn  and  Bourne  shells)  use as the default prompt for users.	 The C
       shell uses All the shells use as the default superuser prompt.

       See login(1) for more on login,	passwd(1)  to  change  your  password,
       chsh(1) to change your login shell.

   Logging Out
       You can log out of the shells by typing an command or the (end-of-file)
       character (see the subsection below).  The  shell  terminates  and  the
       prompt  appears again.  (If you are using the C, Korn, or POSIX shells,
       respectively, see csh(1), ksh(1), or sh-posix(1) for information	 about
       the special command.)

   How to Communicate Through Your Terminal
       HP-UX  gathers  keyboard	 input	characters and saves them in a buffer.
       The accumulated characters are not passed to the shell or other program
       until you type

       HP-UX  terminal	input/output  is full-duplex.  It has full read-ahead,
       which means that you can type at any time,  even	 while	a  program  is
       printing	 on  your  display or terminal.	 Of course, if you type during
       output, the output display will have the input characters  interspersed
       in it.  However, whatever you type will be saved and interpreted in the
       correct sequence.  There is a limit to the amount of read-ahead, but it
       is generous and not likely to be exceeded unless the system is severely
       overloaded or operating	abnormally.   When  the	 read-ahead  limit  is
       exceeded, the system throws away the saved characters.

       The  stty(1)  manpage  tells you how to describe the characteristics of
       your terminal to the system.  The profile(4) manpage  explains  how  to
       accomplish this task automatically every time you log in.

   Special Interactive Characters
       A number of special characters are used to control the input and output
       of your terminal.  These characters have defaults and can be  redefined
       with  the  command  (see	 stty(1)).   Definitions  of  the names are in
       termio(7) and termiox(7).

       The system administrator can modify the system login defaults by chang‐
       ing the characteristics of the device file with the command.

	      stty	   System Default At Login	  Common User
	      Name    Character (ASCII Name; Key Names)	  Redefinition
	      eof     ^D (EOT)

			    erase   #					^H (BS; Backspace)
	      kill    @					  ^U (NAK), ^X (CAN)

			    intr    ^? (DEL; Delete, Rub, Rubout)	^C (ETX)
	      quit    ^\ (FS)

			    start   ^Q (DC1; X-ON)
	      stop    ^S (DC3; X-OFF)

       The  character  terminates  "file"  input from the terminal, as read by
       programs and scripts.  By extension, can also terminate the shell  (see
       the subsection above).

       The character erases the last character typed.  Successive uses of will
       erase characters back to, but not beyond, the beginning	of  the	 input

       The  character  deletes	all  characters	 typed before it on a terminal
       input line.

       The character generates an interrupt signal  that  bypasses  the	 input
       buffer.	 This signal generally causes whatever program you are running
       to terminate.  It can be used to stop a long printout  that  you	 don't
       want.  However, programs can arrange either to ignore this signal alto‐
       gether, or to be notified when it  happens  (instead  of	 being	termi‐
       nated).	 For  example, the editor catches interrupts and stops what it
       is doing, instead of terminating, so that an interrupt can be  used  to
       halt an editing operation without losing the file being edited.

       The  character  generates  a quit signal that bypasses the input buffer
       and most program traps and causes a running program to  terminate.   It
       can cause a core dump in the current directory.

       The  character can be used to pause output to the terminal.  It is com‐
       monly used on video terminals to suspend output to  the	display	 while
       you  read  what is already being displayed.  You can then resume output
       by typing the character.	 When and are used to suspend or  resume  out‐
       put, they bypass the keyboard command-line buffer and are not passed to
       the program.  However, any other characters typed on the	 keyboard  are
       saved and used as input later in the program.

       The  and characters can be used as normal text characters if you escape
       them with a preceding as in Therefore, to erase a you need two

       The and characters cannot be escaped on the input line.

   End-of-Line and Tab Characters
       Besides adapting to the speed of the terminal, HP-UX tries to be intel‐
       ligent  as  to  whether	you have a terminal with a newline (line-feed)
       key, or whether it must be simulated with a return/line-feed  character
       pair.   In  the latter case, all incoming return characters are changed
       to  line-feed  characters  (the	standard  line	 delimiter),   and   a
       return/line-feed	 pair  is echoed to the terminal.  If you get into the
       wrong mode, use the command to correct it (see stty(1)).

       Tab characters are used freely in HP-UX source programs.	 If your  ter‐
       minal does not have the tab function, you can arrange to have tab char‐
       acters changed into spaces during output, and echoed as	spaces	during
       input.	The  command sets or resets this mode.	By default, the system
       assumes that tabs are set every eight character positions.  The command
       (see  tabs(1)) can set tab stops on your terminal, if the terminal sup‐
       ports tabs.

   How to Run a Program
       When you have successfully logged into HP-UX, the shell monitors	 input
       from  your  terminal.  The shell accepts typed lines from the terminal,
       splits them into command names and arguments, then  executes  the  com‐
       mand.   The  command can be the name of a shell built-in, an executable
       script of commands, or an executable program.  There is nothing special
       about  system-provided  commands, except that they are kept in directo‐
       ries where the shell can find them.  You can also keep commands in your
       own directories and arrange for the shell to find them there.

       The  command  name is the first word on an input line to the shell; the
       command and its arguments are separated from one another by blanks (one
       or more space and/or tab characters).

       When  a	program	 terminates,  the shell ordinarily regains control and
       prompts you to indicate that it is  ready  for  another	command.   The
       shell has many other capabilities, which are described in detail in the
       appropriate manpages: sh-posix(1) for the POSIX shell, ksh(1)  for  the
       Korn shell, or csh(1) for the C shell.

   The Current Directory
       HP-UX  has  a file system arranged in a hierarchy of directories.  When
       the system administrator gave you a user name, he or she also created a
       directory for you (ordinarily with the same name as your user name, and
       known as your or directory).  When you log in, that  directory  becomes
       your  or directory, and any file name you type is assumed to be in that
       directory by default.  Because you are the owner of this directory, you
       have  full  permission  to read, write, alter, or destroy its contents.
       The permissions you have for other directories and files will have been
       granted	or  denied to you by their respective owners, or by the system
       administrator.  To change the current working directory use the command
       (see cd(1)).

   Path Names
       To  refer  to  files  not in the current directory, you must use a path
       name.  Full (absolute) path names begin with which is the name  of  the
       directory  of the whole file system.  After the slash comes the name of
       each directory containing the next subdirectory (followed  by  a	 until
       finally the file name is reached (for example, refers to file in direc‐
       tory while is itself a subdirectory of is a subdirectory	 of  the  root
       directory).  See glossary(9) for a formal definition of

       If  your	 current  directory contains subdirectories, the path names of
       files in them begin with the name  of  the  corresponding  subdirectory
       (without	 a prefixed Generally, a path name can be used anywhere a file
       name is required.

       Important commands that modify the  contents  of	 directories  are  and
       which respectively copy, move (that is, rename, relocate, or both), and
       remove files.  To determine the status of  files	 or  the  contents  of
       directories,  use  the  command.	  Use  to make directories, to destroy
       them, and to rename them.  See cp(1), ls(1),  mkdir(1),	mv(1),	rm(1),
       and rmdir(1).

   Writing a Program
       To  enter  the  text of a source program into an HP-UX file, use a text
       editing program such as or (see vi(1), ex(1), and  ed(1)).   The	 three
       principal  languages available under HP-UX are C (see cc_bundled(1) and
       cc(1)), FORTRAN (see f77(1)), and aC++ (see aCC(1)).  After the program
       text  has  been	entered with the editor and written into a file (whose
       name has the appropriate suffix), you can give the name of that file to
       the  appropriate language processor as an argument.  Normally, the out‐
       put of the language processor will be left in a file named in the  cur‐
       rent directory.	Since the results of a subsequent compilation may also
       be placed in thus overwriting the current output, you may want  to  use
       to  give the output a unique name.  If the program is written in assem‐
       bly language, you will probably need to link library  subroutines  with
       it (see ld(1)).	FORTRAN, C, and aC++ call the linker automatically.

       When you have gone through this entire process without encountering any
       diagnostics, the resulting program can be run by giving its name to the
       shell in response to the prompt.

       Your  programs can receive arguments from the command line just as sys‐
       tem programs do by using the argc and argv parameters.  For more infor‐
       mation, see your language's

   Text Processing
       Almost all text is entered through a text editor.  The editor preferred
       above all others provided with HP-UX is the editor.  For batch-process‐
       ing text files, the editor is very efficient.  The editor is useful for
       handling certain situations while using	but  most  other  editors  are
       rarely used except in various scripts.

       The  following  editors are the same program masquerading under various
       names: and (see vi(1)) and and (see ex(1)).  For information about  the
       stream editor, see sed(1).  The line editor is described in ed(1).

       The  commands most often used to display text on a terminal are and See
       cat(1), more(1), and pr(1).  The command simply copies  ASCII  text  to
       the  terminal, with no processing at all.  The command displays text on
       the terminal a screenful at a time, pausing for an acknowledgement from
       the user before continuing.  The command paginates text, supplies head‐
       ings, and has a facility for multicolumn output.	 is most commonly used
       in conjunction with the command (see lp(1)) to pipe formatted text to a
       line printer.

   Interuser Communication
       Certain commands provide interuser communication.  Even if you  do  not
       plan  to	 use them, it could be beneficial to learn about them, because
       someone else may direct them toward you.	 To communicate	 with  another
       user that is currently logged in, you can use to transfer text directly
       to that user's terminal display	(if  permission	 to  do	 so  has  been
       granted	by  the	 other user).  Otherwise, or (in order of ease of use)
       can send a message  to  another	user's	mailbox.   The	user  is  then
       informed	 by  HP-UX  that  mail has arrived (if currently logged in) or
       mail is present (when  the  user	 next  logs  in).   Refer  to  elm(1),
       mail(1),	 mailx(1), and write(1) for explanations of how these commands
       are used.

       UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group.

       cat(1), cc_bundled(1), cd(1), chsh(1),  cp(1),  csh(1),	ed(1),	ex(1),
       ksh(1),	ld(1),	login(1),  lp(1),  ls(1),  mail(1),  mailx(1), man(1),
       mkdir(1), more(1), mv(1), passwd(1), pr(1),  rm(1),  rmdir(1),  sed(1),
       sh(1),  sh-posix(1),  stty(1), tabs(1), vi(1), write(1), a.out(4), pro‐
       file(4), glossary(9).

       The HP Technical Documentation website at:


List of man pages available for HP-UX

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