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GROFF(1)							      GROFF(1)

       groff - front end for the groff document formatting system

       groff [ -abeghilpstvzCEGNRSUVXZ ] [ -wname ] [ -Wname ] [ -mname ]
	     [ -Fdir ] [ -Idir ] [ -Tdev ] [ -ffam ] [ -Mdir ] [ -dcs ]
	     [ -rcn ] [ -nnum ] [ -olist ] [ -Parg ] [ -Larg ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its

       groff is a front-end to the groff document formatting system.  Normally
       it  runs	 the  gtroff  program  and a postprocessor appropriate for the
       selected device.	 Available devices are:

       ps     For PostScript printers and previewers

       dvi    For TeX dvi format.

       X75    For a 75dpi X11 previewer.

       X100   For a 100dpi X11 previewer.

       ascii  For typewriter-like devices.

       latin1 For typewriter-like devices using the ISO Latin-1	 (ISO  8859-1)
	      character set.

       utf8   For  typewriter-like devices using the Unicode (ISO 10646) char‐
	      acter set with UTF-8 encoding.

       cp1047 For typewriter-like devices which use the EBCDIC code  page  IBM
	      cp1047 (e.g. OS/390 Unix).

       lj4    For   an	HP  LaserJet4-compatible  (or  other  PCL5-compatible)

       lbp    For Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and LBP-8	 series	 laser	print‐

       html   To produce HTML output.

       The  postprocessor  to be used for a device is specified by the postpro
       command in the device description file.	This can  be  overridden  with
       the -X option.

       The  default  device  is	 ps.  It can optionally preprocess with any of
       gpic, geqn, ggrn, grap, gtbl, grefer, or gsoelim.

       Options without an argument can be grouped behind a single -.  A	 file‐
       name of - denotes the standard input.

       The  grog command can be used to guess the correct groff command to use
       to format a file.

       -h     Print a help message.

       -e     Preprocess with geqn.

       -t     Preprocess with gtbl.

       -g     Preprocess with ggrn.

       -G     Preprocess with grap.

       -p     Preprocess with gpic.

       -s     Preprocess with gsoelim.

       -Idir  This option is as described in gsoelim(1).  This option  implies
	      the -s option.

       -R     Preprocess  with	grefer.	  No mechanism is provided for passing
	      arguments to grefer because most grefer options have  equivalent
	      commands	which  can be included in the file.  See grefer(1) for
	      more details.

       -v     Make programs run by groff print out their version number.

       -V     Print the pipeline on stdout instead of executing it.

       -z     Suppress output  from  gtroff.   Only  error  messages  will  be

       -Z     Do  not  postprocess  the output of gtroff.  Normally groff will
	      automatically run the appropriate postprocessor.

       -Parg  Pass arg to the postprocessor.  Each argument should  be	passed
	      with  a  separate -P option.  Note that groff does not prepend -
	      to arg before passing it to the postprocessor.

       -l     Send the output to a spooler for printing.  The command used for
	      this is specified by the print command in the device description
	      file (if not present, -l has no effect).

       -Larg  Pass arg to the spooler.	Each argument should be passed with  a
	      separate	-L  option.  Note that groff does not prepend - to arg
	      before passing it to the postprocessor.  If there	 is  no	 print
	      command in the device description file, -L is ignored.

       -Tdev  Prepare output for device dev.  The default device is ps.

       -X     Preview with gxditview instead of using the usual postprocessor.
	      Groff passes gxditview a -printCommand option  which  will  make
	      the  Print action do what groff would have done if the -l option
	      had been given.  This is unlikely to produce good results except
	      with -Tps.

       -N     Don't  allow  newlines with eqn delimiters.  This is the same as
	      the -N option in geqn.

       -S     Safer mode.  Pass the -S option to gpic and disable the  follow‐
	      ing  gtroff  requests:  .open,  .opena, .pso, .sy, and .pi.  For
	      security reasons, safer mode is enabled by default.

       -U     Unsafe mode.  Reverts to the old unsafe behaviour.

       -nnum  These are as described in gtroff(1).

	      If this is set X, then groff will run Xtroff instead of  gtroff.
	      This  also applies to tbl, pic, eqn, grn, refer, and soelim.  It
	      does not apply to grap, grops, grodvi, grotty, grolj4,  grohtml,
	      and gxditview.

	      A	 colon	separated  list	 of directories in which to search for
	      macro  files  in	addition  to  the  default  directories.   See
	      troff(1) for more details.

	      Default device.

	      A colon separated list of directories in which to search for the
	      devname directory in addition to the default one.	 See  troff(1)
	      for more details.

	      This  search  path,  followed by PATH, will be used for commands
	      executed by groff.  If not set, `/freeware/gnu-tools/vax/bin' is
	      prepended to PATH.

	      The directory in which temporary files will be created.  If this
	      is not set and TMPDIR is set, temporary files will be created in
	      that  directory.	 Otherwise  temporary files will be created in
	      /tmp.  The grops(1) and grefer(1) commands can create  temporary

	      Device description file for device name.

	      Font file for font F of device name.

       Note  that  on  EBCDIC  hosts,  output  devices ascii, latin1, and utf8
       aren't available.  Similarly, cp1047 is not available  on  ASCII	 based
       operating systems.

       To  print  the  man page foo.1 to the standard output using the latin-1
       output device and less as the pager, the following command can be used:

	      groff -mandoc -Tlatin1 foo.1 | less

       Alternatively, you can say

	      groff -m mandoc -Tlatin1 foo.1 | less

       James Clark <>

       Report bugs to  Include a  complete,	self-contained
       example that will allow the bug to be reproduced, and say which version
       of groff you are using.

       Copyright © 1989-2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       groff is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it	 under
       the  terms  of  the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
       Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your  option)  any	 later

       groff  is  distributed  in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
       ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of  MERCHANTABILITY  or
       FITNESS	FOR  A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
       for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with  groff;  see the file COPYING.  If not, write to the Free Software
       Foundation, 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.

       The most recent released version	 of  groff  is	always	available  for
       anonymous ftp from in the directory gnu/groff.

       groff only supports the freely available grap implementation written by
       Ted Faber <>.	The actual version can be found at

       grog(1), gtroff(1), gtbl(1), gpic(1), geqn(1), ggrn(1), grap(1),	 gsoe‐
       lim(1),	 grefer(1),   grops(1),	  grodvi(1),   grotty(1),   grolj4(1),
       grolbp(1),  grohtml(1),	gxditview(1),	groff_font(5),	 groff_out(5),
       groff_man(7), groff_ms(7), groff_me(7), groff_char(7)

Groff Version 1.17.2		 27 June 2001			      GROFF(1)

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